Today 119 years ago on the 3rd of December 1895 Anna Freud was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary. The daughter of the world renowned and controversial Philosopher and Psychologist Sigmund Freud. She worked mostly in the Psychology fields of “The Ego” and how the Ego can be trained socially.
Anna Freud also worked in the fields of Child Psychology and how raising a child can influence their views on life.
Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, originally popularized by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others. Since then, psychoanalysis has expanded and been revised, reformed and developed in different directions.
This was initially by Freud’s colleagues and students, such as Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung who went on to develop their own ideas independently from Freud. Later Neo-Freudians included Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan and Jacques Lacan.
The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include the following:
- Besides the inherited constitution of personality, a person’s development is determined by events in early childhood;
- Human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely influenced by irrational drives;
- Irrational drives are unconscious;
- Attempts to bring these drives into awareness meet psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms;
- Conflicts between conscious and unconscious, or repressed, material can materialise in the form of mental or emotional disturbances, for example: neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression etc.;
- The liberation from the effects of the unconscious material is achieved through bringing this material into the conscious mind (via e.g. skilled guidance, i.e. therapeutic intervention).
Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis there are at least 22 theoretical orientations regarding human mental development. The various approaches in treatment called “psychoanalysis” vary as much as the theories do.
The term also refers to a method of analyzing child development.
Anna Freud’s Books and Publications
Freud, Anna (1966–1980). The Writings of Anna Freud: 8 Volumes. New York: Indiana University of Pennsylvania
- Volume 1: Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Lectures for Child Analysts and Teachers (1922–1935)
- Volume 2: Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936); (Revised edition: 1966 (US), 1968 (UK))
- Volume 3: Infants Without Families Reports on the Hampstead Nurseries by Anna Freud
- Volume 4: Indications for Child Analysis and Other Papers (1945–1956)
- Volume 5: Research at the Hampstead Child-Therapy Clinic and Other Papers: (1956–1965)
- Volume 6: Normality and Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of Development (1965)
- Volume 7: Problems of Psychoanalytic Training, Diagnosis, and the Technique of Therapy (1966–1970)
- Volume 8: Psychoanalytic Psychology of Normal Development